• Caries or tooth decay is the most common cause of dental pulp inflammation and infection.
Other pathways for bacterial invasion into the tooth structure and infection of the underlying dental pulp are through:
• Defective fillings or restorations
• Cracks in the tooth structure can serve as potential pathways for bacteria and noxious stimuli to irritate the dental pulp.
• Traumatic injuries to the face and mouth from sports or other accidents can cause teeth to fracture, loosen or even be knocked completely out of the socket (avulsion). Any damage of the tooth structure, surrounding gum or supporting bone will allow bacteria colonisation from saliva, leading to an inflamed dental pulp.
Trauma to upper front teeth
• Excessive wear of the hard outer layers (enamel and dentine) of the tooth due to parafunctional habits like grinding of teeth also make the dental pulp more vulnerable to bacterial or acidic attack.
Excesive wear on upper and lower teeth
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